Business start-up regulations and procedures can be a significant obstacle to business start-up for many entrepreneurs, especially those from under-represented and disadvantaged groups (e.g. women, youth, seniors, immigrants, the unemployed). Aspiring entrepreneurs from these groups may have low levels of entrepreneurship skills and little experience with regulations and institutions related to business start-up. Policy makers have been simplifying processes and reducing capital requirements in recent years, but more can be done. To ensure that business start-up regulations and procedures do not pose undue difficulties for seniors starting a business , policy makers should undertake a regulatory impact assessment in consultation with organisations that support seniors and other relevant stakeholders.
Administrative regulations and procedures related to business creation can pose challenges for all entrepreneurs. However, entrepreneurs from under-represented and disadvantaged groups (e.g. women, youth, seniors, immigrants, the unemployed) may face greater barriers in understanding and complying with start-up regulations and procedures due to limited experience with regulatory procedures and institutions, and lower levels of entrepreneurship skills. Such barriers can discourage business start-up, especially where the costs and time involved to register a business or to become self-employed are high. The bankruptcy regime may also pose challenges for some entrepreneurs. For example, seniors are more likely to have experienced previous attempts at starting or running a business and may for a variety of reasons left or closed that enterprise possibly leading to problems in starting another business. Barriers and challenges may also encourage some to operate in the informal sector.
Policy makers have been simplifying business start-up requirements and procedures, notably by:
- Simplifying business registration process through inter-agency co-operation and e-Services;
- Reviewing bankruptcy regulations to ensure those who are attempting to start a business having previously suffered ‘honest’ bankruptcy or business failure are not presented by unnecessary obstacles;
- Removing minimal capital requirements; and
- Reducing the statistical monitoring burden on start-ups.
It is important for policy makers to continue with these efforts as entrepreneurs from under-represented and disadvantaged groups are disproportionately affected by these requirements.
To go further, policy makers should consider additional options for simplifying administrative requirements during business start-up. First, they can reform existing burdensome regulation. Second, they can minimise the burden introduced by new regulations, through the use of tools such as the Regulatory Impact Assessment [LCC1] .
Policy makers may also see to minimise indirect barriers to business creation, such as licensing, certification and permit requirements, which also add time and complexity to the start-up process.
An effective provision of information on business creation and self-employment that caters to specific target groups is also an important tool for supporting entrepreneurs from under-represented and disadvantaged groups in business creation. Information should be clear and presented in easy-to-understand language. Where there are many immigrant entrepreneurs, information should also be provided in several languages. Consideration should also be given to the format of information provided and required (e.g. brochure, online) since different groups will access information differently. Information must be disseminated through channels used by the intended target groups. For senior entrepreneurs this may include distribution through local channels, such as libraries and community organisations.
A more active approach to addressing undue administrative burdens during the start-up process is to provide individual assistance (e.g. coaching) to guide entrepreneurs from under-represented and disadvantaged groups through the start-up process. Although a resource intensive approach, it can be effective. Some entrepreneurs may be attempting to start a business having previously experienced business failure or a poor track record that may require special attention and mentoring. Another option could be to provide one-shot advice and support with business start-up procedures over the phone, through email or at a help desk at an appropriate location.
Policy makers may find it useful to set out a strategy for addressing administrative burdens related to business creation and self-employment. There are a few aspects to consider:
- Targeting simplification efforts: This involves specifying the targets of reform (e.g. 20 percent reduction in the cost of registering a private limited company) and target groups to benefit from it (e.g. unemployed seniors).
- Institutional design: Different government departments and outside stakeholders may share responsibilities for designing, implementing and measuring entrepreneurship strategy outcomes. It is important to create central units to ensure co-ordination and long term commitment to the administrative simplification strategy.
- Tools to develop and implement the strategy: A number of tools can be used in isolation, or in combination, to develop and implement the strategy, including: better regulation, organisational improvements, ICT implementation, better information and enhanced coherence among administrative requests. Not all of them may be applicable to particular administrative contexts.
In assisting seniors to understand and comply with business start-up regulatory obligations, policy makers should:
- Undertake a regulatory impact assessment in consultation with organisations and other relevant stakeholders that support senior people, e.g. social security, public employment services, trade unions, labour organisations.
- Consider how business start-up regulations and procedures impact the types of businesses started and operated by the seniors.
Ensure that information on business start-up procedures and requirements is easily accessible online and in other formats.
The provision of tailored information on business creation and self-employment can facilitate business creation by groups that are under-represented and disadvantaged in entrepreneurship (e.g. women, youth, seniors, immigrants, the unemployed) since it can address their specific needs. In developing tailored information for seniors, it is important to ensure that the information is written in clear language and presented in an accessible way in different formats and appropriate channels.
The provision of tailored information on business creation and self-employment has two purposes. First, it can raise awareness about the potential of entrepreneurship as a career or part-time activity. Second, it can help people from groups that are under-represented or disadvantaged in entrepreneurship (e.g. women, youth, seniors, immigrants, the unemployed) in the start-up process by explaining requirements and offering basic advice on meeting obligations.
Potential entrepreneurs from under-represented and disadvantaged groups face varied obstacles and circumstances, which should be taken into account when designing and delivering information on business creation and self-employment for them. The business start-up process can itself be a challenge for many of these entrepreneurs since they have little experience with entrepreneurship. In addition, they are also likely unaware of the range of support services that are offered to help them start their business (e.g. information portals, business advice, training).
The provision of tailored information can facilitate business creation by these groups. The information provision is likely to be more effective if it is tailored and there are three important considerations when developing information products to support inclusive entrepreneurship:
1. Format: Not everyone has easy access to the internet, or is aware of the existence of online information services. Alternative formats, such as leaflets in job centres and career centres, may be more effective in raising awareness, sign-posting and informing some groups of potential entrepreneurs. information can also be conveyed through local newspapers, and TV and radio channels.
2. Content: Policy makers must balance the need to provide detail with simplicity. Too much detail, complex language, use of jargon, and poor presentation of the material can make the information inaccessible and discourage business creation.
3. Delivery: The delivery of information on business creation can take several forms. It can be provided through mainstream delivery mechanisms or through specialised agencies, depending on the size of the target group. Policy makers should promote entrepreneurship through channels and mediums that are relevant to the identified target group, e.g. community organisations, interest groups, newspapers, online platforms, magazines, etc.
Information about business creation is increasingly delivered through the Internet. A range of online platforms provide a “one-stop”, also known as a “first-stop”, facility for potential entrepreneurs to access information on issues such as marketing, operations, business registration, tax compliance and sources of finance. The advantage of this approach is that information can be disseminated widely at a very low cost. It is beneficial for entrepreneurs because the information is usually very easy to access. Furthermore, online information and tailored support materials can help people from some target groups overcome difficulties associated with physical access to business support centres. To ensure these can be beneficial to a wide number of people, online formats must be accessible (e.g. accessible formats and colouring, optimised for screen readers). Alternatives should be offered for those who do not have personal internet access or are not familiar with technology (i.e. options to receive guidance by phone or to consult information on public computers with assistance in key locations such as job centres).
In developing tailored information on business creation for seniors, policy makers should:
· Disseminate easy-to-understand information on business start-up through organisations that support senior people, including taxation offices, public employment services, trade unions, labour organisations, career centres, training centres, chambers of commerce and relevant non-governmental organisations.
· Ensure information is relevant for different profiles of senior people e.g. people of different genders, the unemployed, immigrants, labour market returners, professional and manual workers. Some seniors may experience multiple disadvantage and information would benefit from addressing particular groups of the population. For example:
· Ensure that information is written in a jargon-free language and presented in an accessible way.
· Consider how different profiles of the senior population access information, e.g. different backgrounds, gender, employment history (unemployed, labour market returners), professional and manual workers.
· Include information that is pertinent for different types of business activity, including part-time businesses and social enterprises, and a range of sectors. Seniors may be looking for more flexibility in self-employment than other groups, especially as they may seek to balance economic with non-economic activities.
Provide clear information on implications of generating income from self-employment and entrepreneurship on accessing pensions and health insurance.
Monitoring and evaluation are an important part of the policy development process. These activities are often contracted out to leverage specialised knowledge and to maintain the impression of impartiality. When evaluating measures and initiatives that seek to minimise the impact of regulations on business creation by seniors, policy makers examine how social security benefits offer incentives or disincentives for different profiles of senior women and men, e.g. those who are unemployed or redundant, active in different occupations and sectors, those with different levels of experience with entrepreneurship .
Monitoring and evaluation are important policy development tools that can be used by policy makers to understand and assess problems in the regulatory environment for inclusive entrepreneurship. Policy makers should want to understand how the regulatory system influences the decision to start a business and become self-employed, as well as the impact of regulatory measures that seek to create incentives for business creation. An important feature of evaluation of regulatory measures in the context of inclusive entrepreneurship is to track impact on different groups.
Basic monitoring is done with key performance indicators (KPIs) by programme or project managers. KPIs measure progress of a policy or project against the objectives and targets. Indicators can be grouped into three main types:
- Impact (i.e. changes in the problem or other outcomes of concern);
- Cost-effectiveness (i.e. costs for a given level of impact); and
- Net Benefits (i.e. all beneficial impacts minus all costly impacts).
Mid-term and ex-post evaluations can help identify the ways in which a policy can be improved or developed to increase its impact. These evaluations are typically undertaken by external experts to ensure independence and objectivity. Such evaluations should be built into the policy design process from the outset. Furthermore, the lessons learned from evaluations should be available and accessible to other policy makers in order to share good practice.
Effective policy evaluation should include several features. It should be systematic and analytical, focused on actual effects and provide judgement of the level of success. Moreover, they should aim to improve decision making, help resource allocation, enhance accountability, and bring about organisational learning. Six principles for sound evaluation practices can be highlighted:
- Evaluation should lead to policy change;
- Evaluation should be part of the policy debate;
- Evaluators should be “in at the start”;
- Evaluation techniques should always use the most appropriate methodology;
- Evaluation should apply to all policies and programmes; and
- International comparisons should be made where necessary.
The process of policy evaluation may vary, depending on the circumstances. Some government departments and organisations have a dedicated unit with responsibility for evaluating policies, while others may commission evaluations in-house or from outside organisations, as required. Although best practice principles exist, the context of the policy and the target audience requires particular attention against these broader best practice guidelines.
Policy makers can use various tools to monitor and measure the extent to which administrative regulation and procedures impact on business creation. To start with, the World Bank Group’s Doing Business reports provide estimates of the number of legal procedures for starting a business, and time and cost involved, across countries. These indicators can be used by decision makers to assess their particular context in comparison with other countries.
Regular monitoring of social security schemes should be undertaken to ensure that entrepreneurs of all profiles are not treated less favourably by social protection schemes than employees. An appropriate mechanism for monitoring should involve consultations with representative organisations of employers, workers, businesses, representatives from under-represented and disadvantaged groups of entrepreneurs and other relevant stakeholders, including ministries and departments responsible for designing and implementing social security schemes. The monitoring should comprise a number of elements, including:
- Regular national consultations to assess progress and discuss policies for the extension of social security.
- Regular collection, compilation, analysis and publication of social security data, statistics and indicators, disaggregated, in particular, by gender, age, employment status (i.e. employees, self-employed, unemployed).
- Specification of definitions and methodology used in the production of social security data, statistics and indicators.
- Establishment of a legal framework to secure and protect private individual information contained in the social security data systems.
- International exchange of information, experiences and expertise on social security strategies, policies and practices.
When monitoring and evaluating the impact of measures and initiatives that seek to reduce the regulatory burden on seniors who aspire to create a business, it is important for policy makers to:
- Assess the extent to which taxation and social security benefit systems offer incentives and disincentives for business creation for different profiles of the senior population, e.g. professional and manual workers, unemployed, retirement status, age, gender.
- Assess incentives and disincentives in the retirement pension system for self-employed seniors and entrepreneurs with different career paths, including those with both employment and self-employment / entrepreneurship experience, and those in part-time employment.
- Consider the regulatory impact on the types of businesses that senior people create, e.g. sector, activity, location, etc.
- Collect key performance indicators by age and gender.
 The World Bank Group’s ‘Doing Business: Measuring Business Regulations’ website presents measures of legal procedures for starting a business and time and costs involved in 190 countries. Available at: www.doingbusiness.org/data/exploreeconomies/united-kingdom/starting-a-business.